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Holocaust Timeline

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Jan 30, 1933:

Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany

Mar 20, 1933:

SS opens the Dachau concentration camp outside of Munich

Apr 1, 1933:

Boycott of Jewish-owned shops and businesses in Germany

Apr 7, 1933:

Law for the Reestablishment of the Professional Civil Service

Jul 14, 1933:

Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases

Sept 15, 1935:

Nuremberg Race Laws

Mar 16, 1935:

Germany introduces military conscription

Mar 7, 1936:

German troops march unopposed into the Rhineland

Aug 1, 1936:

Summer Olympics begin in Berlin

Mar 11, 1936 - Mar 13, 1936:

Germany incorporates Austria in the Anschluss (Union)

Nov 9, 1938 -
Nov 10, 1938:

Kristallnacht (nationwide program in Germany)

May 13, 1938:

The St. Louis sails from Hamburg, Germany

Sept 29, 1938:

Munich Agreement

Aug 23, 1939:

Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Agreement

Sept 1, 1939:

Germany invades Poland, starting World War II in Europe

Sept 17, 1939:

The Soviet Union occupies Poland from the east

Oct 8, 1939:

Germans establish a ghetto in Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland

Apr 9, 1940:

Germany invades Denmark and Norway

May 10, 1940:

Germany attacks Western Europe

Jul 10, 1940:

Battle of Britain begins

Apr 6, 1941:

Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece

Jun 22, 1941:

Germany invades the Soviet Union

Jul 6, 1941:

Mobile killing units shoot nearly 3,000 Jews at the Seventh Fort in Kovno

Aug 3, 1941:

Bishop Clemens August Graf von Galen of Muenster denounces the “euthanasia” program in a public sermon

Sept 28, 1941 - Sept 29, 1941:

Mobile killing units shoot about 34,000 Jews at Babi Yar, outside Kiev

Nov 7, 1941:

Mobile killing units round up 13,000 Jews from the Minsk ghetto and kill them in nearby Tuchinki

Nov 30, 1941:

Mobile killing units shoot 10,000 Jews from the Riga ghetto in the Rumbula Forest

Dec 6, 1941:

Soviet winter counteroffensive launched

Dec 7, 1941:

Japan bombs Pearl Harbor

Dec 8, 1941:

US declares war on Japan

Dec , 1941:

The first killing operations begin at Chelmno

Dec 11, 1941:

Nazi Germany declares war on the United States

Jan 16, 1942:

Germans begin mass deportation of more than 65,000 Jews from Lodz to Chelmno

Jan 20, 1942:

Wannsee Conference held near Berlin, Germany

Mar 27, 1942:

Germans begin mass deportation of more than 65,000 Jews from Drancy, primarily to Auschwitz

Jun 28, 1942:

Germany launches a new offensive towards the city of Stalingrad

Jul 15, 1942:

Germans begin mass deportation of nearly 100,000 Jews from the occupied Netherlands primarily to Auschwitz

Jul 22, 1942:

Germans begin mass deportation of over 300,000 Jews from the Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka

Sept 12, 1942:

Germans complete the mass deportation of about 265,000 Jews from Warsaw to Treblinka

Nov 23, 1942:

Soviet troops counter attack at Stalingrad, trapping the German Sixth Army in the city

Apr 19, 1943:

Warsaw ghetto uprising begins

Jul 5, 1943:

Battle of Kursk

Oct 1, 1943:

Rescue of Jews in Denmark

Nov 6, 1943:

Soviet troops liberate Kiev

Mar 19, 1944:

Germans forces occupy Hungary

May 15, 1944:

Germans begin mass deportation of about 440,000 Jews from Hungary

Jun 6, 1944:

D-Day: Allied forces invade Normandy, France

Jul 22, 1944:

The Soviets launch an offensive in eastern Belarus

Jul 25, 1944:

Anglo-American forces break out of Normandy

Aug 1, 1944:

Warsaw Polish uprising begins

Aug 15, 1944:

Allied forces land in southern France

Aug 25, 1944:

Liberation of Paris

Dec 16, 1944:

Battle of the Bulge

Jan 12, 1945:

Soviet winter offensive

Jan 18, 1945:

Death march of nearly 60,000 prisoners from Auschwitz

Jan 25, 1945:

Death march of nearly 50,000 prisoners from Stutthof

Jan 27, 1945:

Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz

Mar 7, 1945:

U.S. troops cross the Rhine River at Remagen

Apr 16, 1945:

The Soviets encircle Berlin in their final offensive

April 29, 1945:

American forces liberate the Dachau concentration camp

Apr 30, 1945:

Adolf Hitler commits suicide

May 7, 1945:

Germany surrenders to the western Allies

May 9, 1945:

Germany surrenders to the Soviets


Survivor Quotes

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“There is a place on earth that is a vast desolate wilderness, a place populated by shadows of the dead in their multitudes, a place where the living are dead, where only death, hate and pain exist.”
     – Giuliana Tedeschi, Holocaust survivor

 

“I live some of the horrors of 65 years ago everyday.”
     – Paul Arato, Hungarian Holocaust survivor (courtesy of Matthew Rozell/WWII Living History Project)

 

 “Silence helps the oppressors.”
     – Leslie Meisels, Hungarian Holocaust survivor (courtesy of Matthew Rozell/WWII Living History Project)
  
 

“How could we [the world] have stood by and let that happen to them?  We owe them.”
     – Carrol Walsh, 743rd Tank Battalion, Liberator (courtesy of Matthew Rozell/WWII Living History Project)
 

 

“For me the Holocaust was not only a Jewish tragedy, but also a human tragedy. After the war, when I saw that the Jews were talking only about the tragedy of six million Jews, I sent letters to Jewish organizations asking them to talk also about the millions of others who were persecuted with us together – many of them only because they helped Jews.”
     – Simon Wiesenthal, Holocaust survivor

 

“The Nazis victimized some people for what they did, some for what they refused to do, some for what they were, and some for the fact that they were.”
     – John Conway, Holocaust survivor

 

“… in spite of everything, I still believe that people are really good at heart. I simply can’t build up my hopes on a foundation consisting of confusion, misery, and death. I see the world gradually being turned into a wilderness, I hear the ever approaching thunder, which will destroy us too, I can feel the sufferings of millions and yet, if I look up into the heavens, I think that it will all come right, that this cruelty too will end, and that peace and tranquillity will return again.”
     – Anne Frank

 

“Love gives us wings to soar above it all.”
     - Sara Atzmon, Hungarian Holocaust survivor (courtesy of Matthew Rozell/WWII Living History Project)
 

 

 

“After a few days some people could not take it anymore, and they fell down in the road. If they could not get up, they were shot where they lay. After work we had to carry the bodies back. If 1,000 went out to work, a 1,000 had to come back.”
     – Solomon Radasky, Holocaust survivor

 

“This is the biggest cemetery for Jews, Poles, Roma and Sinti. It must tell us that we have to come back here again and again. We must keep the memory of the worst crime in human history alive for those who were born later.”
     - Horst Koehler, Germany President

 

“The Holocaust is not only a tragedy of the Jewish people, it is a failure of humanity as a whole.”
     - Moshe Katsav, Israeli President

 

“It’s here, where absolute evil was perpetrated, that the will must resurface for a fraternal world, a world based on respect of man and his dignity.”
     - Simone Veil, Auschwitz survivor and former French Health Minister


Auschwitz-Birkenau

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Location:

Oświęcim, Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany

Original use:

Army barracks

Operational:

May 1940 – January 1945

Operated by:

German Schutzstaffel (SS); the NKVD (after WWII)

Commandants:

SS Obersturmbannführer Rudolf Höess
(May 1940 - November 1943)

SS Obersturmbannführer Arthur Liebenschel
(November 1943 - May 1944)

SS Sturmbannführer Friedrich Hartjenstein
(November 1943 - May 1944)

SS Hauptsturmführer Josef Kremer
(May 1944 - November 1944)

SS Sturmbannführer Richard Baer
(May 1944 - January 1945)

Estimated deaths:

1,100,000; mainly Jews, Poles, Roma and Soviet

Liberated:

January 27, 1945 by Soviet troops


Auschwitz-Birkenau photos

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auschwitz entrance

 auschwitz list

 

ShoeHeap

 

694px-Auschwitz_1944

 auschwitz-halt

  220px-Auschwitz_Mengele_Block_10

 

birkenau_FLIP 

auschwitz memorial

 


Belzec

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Location:

Occupied Poland, 47 miles north of the major city of Lvov

Original use:

Constructed by Germans in 1941 in connection with Aktion
Reinhard, specifically for the murder of Jews

Operational:

October 1941 – June 1943

Operated by:

German Schutzstaffel (SS)

Commandants:

SS Sturmbannführer Christian Wirth
(December 1941 – August 1942)

SS Obersturmführer Gottlieb Hering
(August 1942 – December 1942)

SS Unterscharführer Josef Oberhauser
(November 1941 – August 1942)

Estimated deaths:

600,000 Jews, Gypsies, Poles and Roma

Liberated:

Closed by Nazis in 1943 and converted to a farm to disguise the site and prevent locals from digging up human remains

 


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